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Handbook for Historians

Guide to writing research papers for the History Department at Le Moyne College

Documenting your Sources

DOCUMENTATION: FOOTNOTES/ENDNOTES

The History Department requires that papers contain endnotes or footnotes for proper documentation. Chicago style, as found in the Chicago Manual of Style is mandatory; the choice between footnotes and endnotes may vary from one professor to another. MLA, APA, and AMA documentation is unacceptable for use in History papers.

The examples on this page provide models for use in your own paper. Please note that the first reference to a book or periodical is very detailed; the second and all subsequent references to the same book or periodical are very brief. If none of those seem to fit, ask your own professor, the history librarian, or consult the Chicago Manual of Style: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.

PRO TIP: When formatting endnotes/footnotes in Chicago style think of the note as a sentence! The elements of the sentence are separated by commas, not periods, like in the bibliography. Also, in a sentence, you'd never refer to an author last name first, right?

Example: Citing a book

Footnote:

John Sullivan, Why I Wrote this Book (London: Oxford University Press, 2010), 185.

Bibliography:

Sullivan, John. Why I Wrote this Book. London: Oxford University Press. 2010.

Endnote/Footnote References: Books

Endnote/Footnote References: Books

A. A Book by a Single Author.

Format:

Author, first name first, Title (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page number.

Example:

1 Douglas R. Egerton, Death or Liberty: African Americans and Revolutionary America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 123.

2 Barbara J. Blaszak, The Matriarchs of England's Cooperative Movement: A Study in Gender Politics and Female Leadership, 1883-1921 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000), 63.

After you provide a full citation for a given source, such as seen in notes 1 & 2, you only need to provide the author’s last name, a portion of the book’s title, and page number for all subsequent citations from that same work.

3 Blaszak, Matriarchs, 64.

4 Egerton, Death or Liberty, 14.

NOTE: For all types of books, if more than one city of publication is listed, you need only cite the first city that is listed.

B. Books by Two, Three or Four Authors.

Format:

Authors, first name first, Title (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page number.

Example:

5 Edward H. Judge and John W. Langdon, A Hard and Bitter Peace: A Global History of the Cold War (New York: Prentice Hall, 1996), 168.

6 Judge and Langdon, Hard and Bitter Peace, 314.

7 Joseph P. Sánchez, Bruce A. Erickson, and Jerry L. Gurulé, Between Two Countries: A History of Coronado National Memorial, 1939-1990 (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque: Rio Grande Books, 2007), 54.

8 Sánchez, Erickson, and Gurulé, Between Two Countries, 119.

NOTE: If a Book has more than Four authors, list the first author, followed by et al.

9 Smith, John et al., Red Dawn (New York: Prentice Hall, 1996), 155.

C. Books by Corporate Authors.

Format:

Author, Title, edition (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page number.

Example:

10 American Historical Association Institutional Services Program, The Introductory History Course: Six Models, 2nd ed. (Washington: American Historical Association, 1984), 67.

11 American Historical Association, Introductory History Course, 33.

D. Edited Books/Parts of Collections of Writings by Different Authors.

Format:

Author(s), first name first, “Title of article,” in Title, ed(s). Name of editor(s) (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page number.

Example:

12 Robert Scully, "Saint Winefride's Well: The Significance and Survival of a Welsh Catholic Shrine from the Early Middle Ages to the Present Day," in Saints and Their Cults in the Atlantic World, ed. Margaret Cormack (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2007), 132.

13 Scully, “Saint Winefride’s Well,” 134.

D2. Edited Books (no other author).

Format:

Author, first name first, ed., Title (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page number.

Example:

14 Jack Beatty, ed., Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America (New York: Broadway Books, 2001), 127.

15 Beatty, Colossus, 129.

E. Multivolume Books with a Single Title by a Single Author.

Format:

Author, first name first, Title, volumes (City of Publication: Publisher, year), volume number:page number.

Example:

16 William Henry Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution, 2 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1935), 1:26.

17 Chamberlin, Russian Revolution, 2:318.

NOTE: The number preceding the colon is the number of the volume.

F. Multivolume Books by a Single Author with a Separate Title for Each Volume.

Format:

Author, first name first, Title, Volume number of Series title, Number of volumes. (City of Publication: Publisher, Year), volume number:page number.

Example:

18 Pierre Viansson-Ponté, Le temps des orphelins, Vol. 2 of Histoire de la République Gaullienne, 2 vols. (Paris: Fayard, 1976), 2:199.

19 Viansson-Ponté, Le temps, 2:227.

G. Multivolume Books with a Different Author and Title for Each Volume.

Format:

Author, first name first, Title, Volume number of editor’s name, ed. Series Title, Number of volumes (City of Publication: Publisher, Year), volume number:page number.

Example:

20 Lewis B. Spitz, The Protestant Reformation, Vol. 3 of William L. Langer, ed. The Rise of Modern Europe, 20 vols. (New York: Harper & Row, 1985), 3:189.

21 Spitz, The Protestant Reformation, 3:176.

H. Two or More Parts of a Collection of Writings by Different Authors. (Use this format if you are citing from several different sections of a multi-author book.)

Format:

Author, first name first, “Article’s title,” in Title, ed. Editor’s name (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page number.

Example:

22 Martin Hinterberger, “Emotions in Byzantium,” in A Companion to Byzantium, ed. Liz James (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 127.

23 Hinterberger, “Emotions,” 129.

For subsequent citations from the same book, but from a different author, use a shortened version of the collected work.

Example:

24 Andrew Louth, “Christology and Heresy,” in James, Companion to Byzantium, 189.

25 Louth, “Christology,” 190.

I. Books With More than One Edition.

See Section C above. Second and subsequent references omit the number of the edition.

J. Translated Books.

Format:

Author, first name first, Title, trans. Translator’s name (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page number.

Example:

26 Fritz Fischer, War of Illusions, trans. Marian Jackson (New York: Norton, 1975), 271.

27 Fischer, War, 344.

K. A Letter (or diary entry, memo, etc.) in a published collection. (If it is a letter, you do not need to specify that, but another type of document should be specified.)

Format:

Name of sender and recipient, date, in Title, ed. Editor’s name (City of Publication: publisher, year), page number.

Example:

28 Henry Adams to Charles Milnes Gaskell, 22 September 1867, in Letters of Henry Adams, 1858-1891, ed. Worthington Chauncey Ford (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1930), 133-34.

29 Ford, Letters, 136.

30 Berchtold to Tisza, telegram, 8 July 1914, in July 1914: The Outbreak of the First World War, ed. Imanuel Geiss (New York: Norton, 1974), 102.

31 Geiss, July 1914, 103.

32 Ronald Reagan, The “Evil Empire” Speech, 1983, in Speeches in World History, ed. Suzanne McIntire (New York: Facts on File, 2009), 496.

33 Reagan, Speeches, 497.

L. A Primary Source Quoted by a Second Source.

Note: It is preferable that the original source is consulted and cited on its own, but if the original source cannot be obtained, use this format.

Format:

Author of original source, first name first, Title (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page number, quoted in Author of secondary source, first name first, Title (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page number.

Example:

34 Hastings Ismay, The Memoirs of General Lord Ismay (New York: Viking, 1960), 199, quoted in James Holland, The Battle of Britain (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2010), 476.

35 Ismay, The Memoirs, 210, quoted in Holland, The Battle, 480.

M. Books published electronically.

Note: Cite the book as you would normally, but include the online format that you used, i.e., Kindle, Nook, pdf. If you accessed the book online (such as in Google Books or through an e-book in the library), include the date accessed and the URL. If your E-book does not provide page numbers, you should include the section title or chapter number instead.

Example:

36 Hasan Kayali, Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1918 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), 167, accessed 21 May 2009, http://escholarship.org/editions/view?docId=ft7n39p1dn;query=;brand=ucpress.

37 Kayali, Arabs, 186.

38 Winston Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1947), 35, Kindle edition.

Endnote/Footnote References: Journal Articles

Endnote/Footnote References: Journal Articles

N. Articles in Print Journals.

Format:

Author, first name first, “Article title,” Journal Title Volume number: Issue number (Year): page number.

Example:

39 Yamin Xu, “Policing Civility on the Streets: Encounter with Litterbugs, ‘Nightsoil Lords,’ and Street Corner Urinators in Republican Beijing,”Twentieth-Century China 30:2 (2005): 45.

NOTE: 30:2 signifies volume 30 and issue number 2.

40 Xu, “Policing Civility,” 48.

NOTE: If a work has four authors or more, cite the first author's name followed by et al in the notes.

In the bibliography, cite all the authors names. DO THIS FOR BOOKS AND ARTICLES

Example

41 John Smith, et al., "Red Empire Nation," Journal of American History 30:2 (2005): 55.

A Word about CITING ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Citations of electronic resources are different from citations for published sources. The following elements must be included:

  • Electronic full-text Journal articles and E-Books from the library’s databases, though they are accessed online, are regarded as published sources. Citations for these must contain full documentation of the publication as well as electronic access information.
  • Subscription databases, such as JSTOR or Proquest, must be accessed through a subscribing library or other institution.
  • Because material on the internet can change without notice, the last date on which the material was accessed is part of the citation.
  • The web address, or URL, is a required part of the citation. Most databases will include a stable URL, a permalink, or a DOI (digital object identifier) that you should use.

Proper citation formats, with examples, are shown below:

O. Articles from Online Journal.

Note: Many online publications use a DOI (digital object identifier) to create a persistent link to the article’s information. If no DOI is available, use the URL and the date accessed.)

Format:

Author, first name first, “Title of article,” Title of Journal or Website Volume:Issue Number (Year): page number (if specified), Date accessed, URL.

Example:

42 Douglas R. Egerton, “The Material Culture of Slave Resistance,” History Now: American History Online 2 (December 2004), accessed 20 June 2011, www.historynow.org/12_2004/historian2.html.

43 Egerton, “The Material Culture.”

44 Timothy S. Heubner, “Roger B. Taney and the Slavery Issue: Looking Beyond –and before- Dred Scott,” The Journal of American History 97:1 (2010): 17, doi: 10.2307/jahist/97.1.17.

45 Heubner, “Roger B. Taney,” 18.

P. Full-text newspaper articles

Format:

Author, first name first, “Title of Article,” Title of Newspaper, Date of newspaper article, page number (if available), Date accessed, URL.

Example:

46 Juan Forero, “Turbulent Bolivia Is Producing More Cocaine, the U.N. Reports,” New York Times on the Web, 15 June 2005, accessed 16 June 2005, www.nytimes.com/2005/06/15/international/americas/15coca.html.

For subsequent citations of this source cite the author’s last name and part of title.

Note: For regular print editions, omit date accessed and URL.

Q. Articles/Newspapers retrieved from a Database.

Note: Include all journal information and provide database name and a permanent link to the article from the database.

Format with url (seen in articles retrieved from ProQuest databases):

Author, first name first, “Title of Article,” Journal Title Volume:Issue Number (year): page number, Database name, url.

Example:

47 Robert Zens, “In the Name of the Sultan: Haci Mustapha, Pasha of Belgrade and Ottoman Provincial Rule in the Late 18th Century,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 44:1 (2012): 132, ProQuest Central, http://0-search.proquest.com.library.lemoyne.edu/docview/1531929597/4F00F029CDF14BBBPQ/16?accountid=27881

48 Zens, “In the Name of the Sultan,” 134.

Format with permalink (seen in articles retrieved from Ebsco databases):

Author, first name first, “Title of Article,” Journal Title Volume:Issue number (year): page number, Database name, Permanent link.

Example:

49 Barbara Blaszak, “Martha Jane Bury (1851-1913): A Case of Class Identity,” Labour History Review 67:2 (2002): 131, Historical Abstracts, http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.lemoyne.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hia&AN=9502395&site=ehost-live

50 Blaszak, “Martha Jane Bury,” 132.

Format with stable url link: (seen in articles retrieved from the JSTOR database)

Author, first name first, “Title of Article,” Journal Title Volume:Issue number (year): page number, Database name, Permanent link.

Example:

51 Stephen Tisza and Hamilton Fish Armstrong, “A Letter of Count Tisza’s,” Foreign Affairs 6:3 (1928): 503, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20028631.

52 Tisza and Armstrong, “Letter,” 504.

Format for Newspaper with Permanent URL link:

Author, first name first (leave blank if no author), “Article Title,” Publication Title, Date, Database name, Permanent link.

Example:

53 “General Discussion of the Contest,” New York Times (1857-1922), 22 May 1861, ProQuest Historical Newspapers, http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.lemoyne.edu/pqdweb?did=78657656&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=1518&RQT=309&VName=HNP.

For subsequent citations of this source cite the author’s last name and part of title.

Endnote/Footnote References: Websites

Endnote/Footnote References: Websites

Web-based sources should be used sparingly and very carefully. Students must have all sources, Internet or otherwise, approved by the instructor before they are used.

R. Primary source documents found online. (Use this format when using approved websites containing primary source material.) Include as many of the following elements as are available. Include page numbers when appropriate before the URL.

Format:

Author of original document, first name first, “Title of document,” Date of document, Title of Web Site where document is found, Author, Editor, or Producer of site, accessed date, URL.

Example:

54 Sydney Smith, “Fallacies of Anti-Reformers,” 1824, Internet Modern History Sourcebook, Paul Halsall, ed., accessed 22 June 2011, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/smithantireform.html.

55 Smith, “Fallacies of Anti-Reformers.”

56 Thorstein Veblen, “The Theory of the Leisure Class,” 1899, Internet Modern History Sourcebook, Paul Halsall, ed., accessed 22 June 2011, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1899veblen.html.

57 Veblen, “Theory of the Leisure Class.”

Example (no author given):

58 “Codex Justinianus: Protection of Freewomen Married to Servile Husbands,” 530 A.D., Internet Medieval Source Book, Paul Halsall, ed., accessed 25 February 2002, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/codexVIl-24-i.html.

59 “Codex Justinianus.”

Note: Many print primary sources are reproduced in digital format on various websites, such at the ones above. Most sites should give original publication information, but if not, you can try to locate original source information by searching online (try google books or worldcat.org). When possible, cite your sources according to the appropriate print format, and include the date accessed and the URL. For example, Veblen’s book The Theory of the Leisure Class can now be found in Google Books and would be cited similar to section M as follows:

60 Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Instituions, London: Macmillan & Co., 1912, accessed 22 June 2011, http://books.google.com/books?id=2kAoAAAAYAAJ&dq=inauthor%3A%22Thorstein%20Veblen%22&pg=PR3#v=onepage&q&f=false.

S. Other Approved Websites. (Include as much information as available.)

Format:

Author of webpage, “Title of Webpage,” Title of entire website, Publication Date, accessed Date, URL.

Example:

61 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, “May Day: On the Current Conditions of the Palestinian Working Class,” Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, 21 May 2009, accessed 13 April 2010, http://www.pflp.ps/english/?q=may-day-current-conditions-struggle-palestinian-wo.

62 Popular Front, "May Day".

Endnote/Footnote References: Other Sources

Endnote/Footnote References: Other Sources

T. Book Reviews.

Book Review found in a journal:

Format:

Author of review, “Title of Review,” (if available) review of Title of Book, by Author of book, Title of Journal Volume: Issue (year), page, url.

Example:

63 Audrey Elisa Kerr, “Everybody’s Oprah,” review of Embracing Sisterhood: Class Identity and Contemporary Black Women, by Katrina Bell McDonald, The Women’s Review of Books 26:2 (2009), 31, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20476833

64 Kerr, “Everybody’s Oprah.”

Book Review found on a website:

Format:

Author, “Title of Review” (if available) review of Title of Book, by Reviewer Name, Website where review appeared, date, URL.

Example:

65 David Ponton, III, review of Spatializing Blackness: Architectures of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago, by Rashad Shabazz, H-Net Online, June 2016, https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=46538.

66 Ponton, III, review of Spatializing Blackness.

U. Audio/Visual Materials (films, photographs, images, etc.)

Note: In most cases, visual sources are not acceptable; however some primary sources, such as the Watergate trials or Nazi propaganda, are appropriate and must be cited correctly. All sources must be approved by your instructor. The Library of Congress has an excellent set of example citations that you should consult.

General Format:

Author (or Creator) of image or video, “Title,” format, date, source, accessed date, URL.

Example: (primary video accessed from library)

67 The WPA Film Library, “Nazi Anti-Semitic Propaganda,” video, 1939, Films on Demand, accessed 14 September 2014, http://library.lemoyne.edu/record=b1418786

Example: (speech/video found online)

68 Harry S. Truman, “Speech after Hiroshima Bombing,” video, August 6, 1945, Critical Past, accessed 13 August 2016, https://youtu.be/e3Ib4wTq0jY