NOTE: All bibliographic entries should have a hanging indent. If the examples in the style guide below do not, it is an issue with the way your computer is displaying the text. Just make sure that when you type your paper, you have hanging indents like you'll see in the example below.
A. A Book by a Single Author.
Author, last name first. Title. City of Publisher: Publisher, year.
Egerton, Douglas R. Death or Liberty: African Americans and Revolutionary America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
B. Books by Two, Three or Four Authors.
Author, last name first for first author only. Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Judge, Edward H., and John W. Langdon. A Hard and Bitter Peace: A Global History of the Cold War. New York: Prentice Hall, 1996.
Sánchez, Joseph P., Bruce A. Erickson, and Jerry L. Gurulé. Between Two Countries: A History of Coronado National Memorial, 1939-1990. Los Ranchos de Albuquerque: Rio Grande Books, 2007.
C. Books by Corporate Authors.
Author. Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
American Historical Association. The Introductory History Course: Six Models. 2nd ed. Washington: American Historical Association, 1984.
D. Edited Books/Parts of Collections of Writings by Different Authors.
Author, last name first. “Title of article.” In Title, edited by editors names, first name first, page numbers. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Langdon, John W. "Whither the Postards? Graduates of the Ecole Sainte-Geneviève, 1914-1954." In The Making of Frenchmen, eds. Donald N. Baker and Patrick J. Harrigan, 429-439. Waterloo, Ontario: Historical Reflections Press, 1980.
NOTE: Page numbers of the portion of the collection you are citing must be included: "429-439" above.
D2. Edited Books (no other author).
Author, last name first, ed. Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Beatty, Jack, ed. Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America. New York: Broadway Books, 2001.
E. Multivolume Books with a Single Title by a Single Author.
Author, last name first. Title. Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Chamberlin, William Henry. The Russian Revolution. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1935.
F. Multivolume Books by a Single Author with a Separate Title for Each Volume.
Author, last name first. Title. Volume number of Series title. Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Viansson-Ponté, Pierre. Le temps des orphelins. Vol. 2 of Histoire de la République Gaullienne. 2 vols. Paris: Fayard, 1976.
G. Multivolume Books with a Different Author and Title for Each Volume.
Author, last name first. Title. Volume number of editor’s name, ed. Series Title. Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Spitz, Lewis B. The Protestant Reformation. Vol. 3, William L. Langer, ed. The Rise of Modern Europe. 20 vols. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.
H. Two or More Parts of a Collection of Writings by Different Authors. (Use this format if you are citing from several different sections of a multi-author book.)
Author, last name first. “Article title.” In Editor’s Last name, Title, inclusive pages.
Hinterberger, Martin. “Emotions in Byzantium.” In James, A Companion to Byzantium, 123-34.
Louth, Andrew. “Christology and Heresy.” In James, A Companion to Byzantium, 187-98.
James, Liz. Ed. A Companion to Byzantium. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
I. Books With More than One Edition.
See section C.
J. Translated Books.
Author, last name first. Title. Translated by Translator’s name. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Fischer, Fritz. War of Illusions. Translated by Marian Jackson. New York: Norton, 1975.
K. A letter (or diary entry, memo, etc.) in a published collection.
Original Author. Title. Edited by Editor’s name. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Adams, Henry. Letters of Henry Adams, 1858-1891. Edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford. Boston: Hougton Mifflin, 1930.
L. A Primary Source Quoted by a Second Source.
Note: it is preferable that the original source is consulted and cited on its own, but if the original source cannot be obtained use this format.) Use “quoted” if you are taking a direct quote, “cited” if you are paraphrasing.
Author of original source, last name first, Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Quoted/Cited in Author of secondary work, last name first, Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Ismay, Hastings. The Memoirs of General Lord Ismay. New York: Viking Press, 1960. Quoted in Holland, James. The Battle of Britain. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2010.
Note: you should include a separate citation for the secondary source alone in the bibliography.
M. Books published electronically. Cite the book as you would normally, but include the online format that you used (i.e. Kindle, Nook, Pdf). If you accessed the book online, include the date accessed and the URL.
Kayali, Hasan. Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1918. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. Accessed 21 May 2009, http://escholarship.org/editions/view?docId=ft7n39p1dn;query=;brand=ucpress.
Churchill, Winston. The Gathering Storm. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1947. Kindle edition.
N. Articles in Print Journals.
Author, last name first. “Article title.” Journal Title Volume Number:Issue Number
(Year): page numbers.
Xu, Yamin. “Policing Civility on the Streets: Encounter with Litterbugs, ‘Nightsoil Lords,’ and Street Corner Urinators in Republican Beijing.” Twentieth-Century China 30:2 (2005): 28-71.
Note: Format multiple authors in the same way as for books.
A Word about CITING ELECTRONIC SOURCES
Citations of electronic resources are different from citations for published sources. The following elements must be included:
- Electronic full-text Journal articles and E-Books from the library’s databases, though they are accessed online, are regarded as published sources. Citations for these must contain full documentation of the publication as well as electronic access information.
- Subscription databases, such as JSTOR or Proquest, must be accessed through a subscribing library or other institution.
- Because material on the internet can change without notice, the last date on which the material was accessed is part of the citation.
- The web address, or URL, is a required part of the citation. Most databases will include a stable URL, a permalink, or a DOI (digital object identifier) that you should use.
Proper citation formats, with examples, are shown below:
O. Articles in Online Journals. (Many online publications are now using a DOI (digital object identifier) to create a persistent link to the article’s information. If no DOI is available, use the URL and date accessed. )
Author, last name first. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume number:Issue Number (date): inclusive pages (leave blank if there are no pages). doi: or Accessed date. URL.
Egerton, Douglas R. “The Material Culture of Slave Resistance.” History Now: American History Online (December 2004). Accessed 20 June 2011. http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/12_2004/historian2.php.
Huebner, Timothy S. “Roger B. Taney and the Slavery Issue: Looking Beyond –and before- Dred Scott.” The Journal of American History 97:1 (2010): 17-38. doi: 10.2307/jahist/97.1.17.
P. Articles in Newspapers or Magazines. (If you consulted the article online, include access date and URL. If no author is identified, begin citation with article title.)
Author, Last name first. “Article Title.” Title of Newspaper/Magazine, Date. Accessed date. URL.
Forero, Juan. “Turbulent Bolivia Is Producing More Cocaine, the U.N. Reports.” New York Times on the Web, 15 June 2005. Accessed 16 June 2005. www.nytimes.com/2005/06/15/international/americas/15coca.html.
Q. Articles/Newspapers retrieved from Databases.
Note: Include all journal information and provide database name and a permanent link to the article from the database.
Format with url (seen in articles retrieved from ProQuest databases):
Author, last name first. "Title of Article." Journal Title Volume number: Issue Number (date): inclusive pages. Database name. url.
Zens, Robert. “In the Name of the Sultan: Haci Mustapha, Pasha of Belgrade and Ottoman Provincial Rule in the Late 18th Century.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 44:1 (2012): 130-139. ProQuest Central. http://0-search.proquest.com.library.lemoyne.edu/docview/1531929597/4F00F029CDF14BBBPQ/16?accountid=27881
Format with permalink (seen in articles retrieved from Ebsco databases):
Author, last name first. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume number:Issue Number (date): inclusive pages. Database Name. Permanent Link.
Blaszak, Barbara. “Martha Jane Bury (1851-1913): A Case Study of Class Identity.” Labour History Review 67:2 (August 2002): 130-148. Historical Abstracts with Full Text. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.lemoyne.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hia&AN=9502395&site=ehost-live.
Format with stable url link: (seen in articles retrieved from the JSTOR database)
Author, last name first. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume number:Issue Number (date): inclusive pages. Database Name. Permanent Link.
Tisza, Stephen, and Hamilton Fish Armstrong. “A Letter of Count Tisza’s.” Foreign Affairs 6:3 (April 1928): 501-504. JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20028631.
Example of Newspaper with Permanent URL link: Format for Newspaper with Permanent URL link:
Author, first name first (leave blank if no author). “Article Title.” Publication Title. Date. Database name. Permanent link.
“General Discussion of the Contest.” New York Times (1857-1922). 22 May 1861. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.lemoyne.edu/pqdweb?did=78657656&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=1518&RQT=309&VName=HNP.
Web-based sources should be used sparingly and very carefully. Students must have all sources, Internet or otherwise, approved by the instructor before they are used.
R. Primary source document found online. (Use this format when using approved websites containing primary source material.) Include as many of the following elements as are available.
Author of original document, last name first. “Title of document.” Date of document. Title of Web Site where document is found. Author, Editor, or Producer of site. Date accessed. URL.
Smith, Sydney. “Fallacies of Anti-Reformers.” 1824. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Paul Halsall, ed. Accessed 22 June 2011. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/smithantireform.html.
Veblen, Thorstein. “The Theory of the Leisure Class.” 1899. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Paul Halsall, ed. Accessed 22 June 2011. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1899veblen.html.
Example (no author given):
“Codex Justinianus: Protection of Freewomen Married to Servile Husbands.” 530 A.D. Internet Medieval Source Book. Paul Halsall, ed. Accessed 25 February 2002. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/codexVIl-24-i.html.
Note: Many print primary sources are reproduced in digital format on various websites, such at the ones above. Most sites should give original publication information, but if not, you can try to locate original source information by searching online (try google books or worldcat.org). When possible, cite your sources according to the appropriate print format, and include the date accessed and the URL. For example, Veblen’s book The Theory of the Leisure Class can now be found in Google Books and would be cited similar to section N as follows:
Veblen, Thorstein. The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Instituions. London: Macmillan & Co., 1912. Accessed 22 June 21 2011. http://books.google.com/books?id=2kAoAAAAYAAJ&dq=inauthor%3A%22Thorstein%20Veblen%22&pg=PR3#v=onepage&q&f=false.
S. Other Approved Website (Include as much information as available.)
Author of webpage. “Title of Webpage.” Title of Entire Website. Publication Date. Accessed Date. URL.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. “May Day: On the Current Conditions of the Palestinian Working Class.” Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Accessed 21 May 2009. www.pflp.ps/english/?q=may-day-current-conditions-struggle-palestinian-wo.
T. Book Reviews.
Book Review found in a journal:
Author of review. “Title of Review.” (if available) Review of Title of Book, by Author of book. Title of Journal Volume: Issue (year). url.
Kerr,Audrey Elisa. “Everybody’s Oprah.” Review of Embracing Sisterhood: Class Identity and Contemporary Black Women, by Katrina Bell McDonald. The Women’s Review of Books 26:2 (2009). http://www.jstor.org/stable/20476833
Book Review found on a website:
Author, “Title of Review” (if available). Review of Title of Book, by Reviewer Name. Website where review appeared. Date. URL.
David Ponton, III. Review of Spatializing Blackness: Architectures of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago, by Rashad Shabazz. H-Net Online. June 2016. https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=46538.
U. Audio/Visual Materials (films, photographs, images, etc.)
Note: In most cases, visual sources are not acceptable; however some primary sources, such as the Watergate trials or Nazi propaganda, are appropriate and must be cited correctly. All sources must be approved by your instructor. The Library of Congress has an excellent set of example citations that you should consult.
Author (or Creator) of image or video. “Title.” Format. Date. Source. Accessed date. URL.
Example: (primary video accessed from library)
The WPA Film Library. “Nazi Anti-Semitic Propaganda,” Video. 1939. Films on Demand. Accessed 14 September 2014. http://library.lemoyne.edu/record=b1418786~S0
Example: (speech/video found online)
Harry S. Truman. “Speech after Hiroshima Bombing.” Video. August 6. 1945. Critical Past. Accessed 13 August 2016. https://youtu.be/e3Ib4wTq0jY
If the book or article you wish to cite differs from all of the models given here, please consult http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. If none of those seem to fit, ask your professor or the History Librarian.
Formatting a Bibliography
Note that a bibliography is additional to your endnotes/footnotes, and appears at the very end of your paper. It has hanging indents (here is a video on making a hanging indent in word and a link to making a hanging indent in Google Docs ), and is arranged alphabetically by the author's last name.
Primary and secondary sources should be separated in your final bibliography. List all primary sources first, followed by secondary sources, subdivided between books and periodical articles. Read more about primary and secondary sources.